August 25

Lithium-ion Battery Expert Martin Kepman Report - Who Rules The Electric Vehicle and Lithium-ion Battery Industry is Now Available

Could China Disrupt The Success of The World’s Future Climate Revolution? Expounds Martin Kepman CEO of Manganese X Energy




Lithium-ion Battery Expert Martin Kepman Posits. Who's The Real Power Behind Electric Vehicles And Lithium-ion Batteries

Who Rules The Electric Vehicle and Lithium-ion Battery Industry? Could China Disrupt The Success of The World’s Future Climate Revolution? Expounds Martin Kepman

As the demand continues to rise for precious minerals, many world powers are scrambling to invest and secure valuable trade agreements with major mineral deposits around the world. China has been leading and winning the race by investing billions of dollars for over 25 years.

Major Chinese Investment Abroad For Minerals (Africa)

Due to the continually rising demand for precious minerals, many world powers are scrambling to invest and secure valuable trade agreements at major mineral deposit sites around the world. At the forefront of this race, China has been investing billions of dollars into foreign economies, especially on the African continent, to secure the mineral rights to mine Africa’s natural resources like lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, graphite, and iron. According to the foreign policy research institute (fpri) “Between 2001 and 2018, China loaned approximately $126 billion to African countries. Between 2001 and 2018, China invested $41 billion in FDI.” These steps taken by China to place itself at the front of the pack in terms of foreign mineral investment has placed them in a unique place of power for the coming years. The need for rare minerals such as cobalt, lithium, manganese, etc… will make their investments, such as the $6 billion cobalt mining contract (see Bloomberg) signed in 2008 with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) all the more lucrative and very strategic for China.



China Holds A Stranglehold On The World's Mineral Supply

China's position on the mineral world stage will allow them to dominate the EV and lithium-ion battery world now and in the near future. CSIS (Center for Strategic and International Studies) states that “From 2008 to 2018, China exported nearly 408,000 metric tons of rare earths, which amounted to 42.3 percent of all rare earth exports over this period.” The United States pales in comparison, supplying only 9.3 percent of the global total. CSIS also says that “As of 2018, the US still imported 80.5 percent of its rare earths from China.” This shows how dependent the US is on China, so much so that if China were to disrupt global supply chains the United States would be severely hampered.

Chinese Dependence Is A National Security Risk

This would be a massive national security risk for the U.S. Being dependent on any one source for the majority of your resources means that someone like China for example could cut off the supply of material which would effectively halt many of our domestic markets. CIA Director William Burns said in congressional testimony. "An adversarial, predatory Chinese leadership poses our biggest geo-political test." Overcoming this “geo-political test” means effectively weaning US markets off Chinese rare earth suppliers and finding our own domestic markets or at the very least diversifying our suppliers.

Mineral Availability Could Strain The EV Market

Finding independence from Chinese rare earth minerals will be extremely important in the coming years, especially since certain markets such as the EV (electric vehicle) market will require increasing magnitudes of extra material to continue to function. The IEA’s 2021 sustainable development scenario of critical minerals as cited by the WEF (world economic forum) states “80% of battery storage in 2040 would be used in light-duty electric vehicles, and this will require a 40-fold increase in the production of lithium and nickel and more than 20 times as much as copper, graphite, and cobalt compared with 2020 levels.” Any disruptions to the supply chain from China would drastically alter our domestic markets and the WEF even predicts that because batteries account for about “30%-40% of the cost of an EV, and a price surge or supply disruption could make EVs less attractive to consumers, driving them back to the “safe choice” of petroleum vehicles.”

China’s “Going Out” Strategy

China introduced the “zou chuqu (走出去)” or the “going out” strategy to facilitate its global rise along with evolving mechanisms and is the primary reason China is in such a favorable position on the world stage today. This is easily apparent with precious mineral acquisition and largely due to the “going out” policy/strategy that began in the late 90’s. “ [The] policy permitted local companies to make acquisitions abroad for the first time. Numerous state-owned enterprises, as well as private corporations, jumped at the opportunity. The value of Chinese M&A shot up from $1.6 billion in 2003 to $18.2 billion by 2006, triggering worldwide unease about the China takeover threat.” (HBR, 2011) These investments have not stopped since then either. “Total Chinese overseas mining investments from 2003 to 2017 were around USD 125 billion according to Chinese statistics, representing some 14% of total Chinese FDI over the same period.” (Ericsson, Löf & Löf)




Mineral Resources Are Not Distributed Equally

All land is not created equally, there are areas of the world in which the majority of certain rare earths are located. The Congo is one such example; it contains around 2/3rds of all cobalt deposits in the world; this is important to note because China has invested astronomical amounts of money into their economy. These investments have allowed China to exert control over and become the majority producer of cobalt, in fact, according to the times “Two of the biggest cobalt mines in the DRC are in Chinese hands” and because the DRC houses over 2/3rds of the world's supply of cobalt, China the majority investor can effectively control the flow.




China Processes Nearly All Of The World's Mineral Ore

Chinese government ownership of mines however is just the start, China also controls and produces most of the world's high purity grade minerals to meet lithium-ion battery quality standards. Benchmark mineral intelligence agency, states that China currently refines 68% of the world's nickel, 73% of the world's cobalt, 100% of the world's graphite, 59% of its lithium, and 93% of its manganese. Chinese transport and refining of the majority of the earth's minerals presents a dangerous challenge for the environment, because of the lack of environmental regulations. Chinese production and refinement were attractive to foreign companies interested in investing and setting up manufacturing in China, pre-Covid, due to the lack of proper Chinese environmental oversight. This had the result of Chinese manufacturing pumping out far more emissions and polluting the environment far more than any average US company.



The US Has Made Moves Albeit Not Nearly As Big As China

To the credit of the U.S, it has made some moves to fight back against Chinese control of the mineral supply chain. President Biden has invoked the Defense Production Act which as the times states “ will give the government more avenues to provide support for the mining, processing, and recycling of critical materials, such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, graphite, and manganese” and help America move past its over-reliance on China. To compete with China on a global scale in the coming years the United States will need to make some serious changes in regard to mineral supply and production and it needs to move quickly to counter China's influence.

“ The recently passed US legislation makes a lot of sense. A made in North America initiative establishes a preferential tax treatment for electric vehicle manufacturing assemblies in North America. The dependence on China must be lessened. Manganese X is accelerating their efforts to become an important domestic supplier of manganese for the EV battery market,” states Martin Kepman, a lithium-ion battery futurist.

“Manganese X Energy Announces PEA Explains Positive Results & How Manganese X Leadership Remains Bullish”

The entire PEA report is now available at:

PEA Highlights:

  • Robust Economics

  • HPMSM Market Price

  • Price Sensitivity

  • Long Mine Life

  • Low Environmental Impact

  • Project Objectives

  • Sensitivity Analysis


Contributor Martin Kepman CEO Manganese X Energy Corp

For the past 40 years, Martin Kepman has been working as a business development and management consultant, advising companies in different industries from software, soft-goods, printing, food to mining. Learn more on LinkedIn



About Manganese X Energy

Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSXV: MN) (FSE: 9SC2) (OTC:QB:MNXXF) (FRANKFURT:

9SC2) with its head office in Montreal QC, owns 100% of the Battery Hill property project (1,228 hectares) located in New Brunswick Canada. Battery Hill is strategically situated 12 kilometers from the US (Maine) border, near existing infrastructures (power, railways, and roads). It encompasses all or part of five manganese-iron zones, including Iron Ore Hill, Moody Hill, Sharpe Farm, Maple Hill, and Wakefield. According to Brian Way’s (2012) master’s thesis on the Woodstock manganese occurrences, that includes Battery Hill, the area “hosts a series of banded iron formations that collectively constitute one of the largest manganese resources in North America, approximately 194,000,000 tons.

Media contact:

Rene Perras Digital PR Consultant

for Manganese X Energy Corp

514-816-4446

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Resources:

  • Manganese Battery Expert Martin Kepman Explains Lithium-Ion Battery Technology & How Manganese Will Play an Important Role! - Upcoming Lithium-Ion Battery Technology Can Recharge in One Minute, Increasing Demand for Lithium, Manganese, and Other EV Materials Essential For all Future Lithium-ion Battery Chemistries. Martin Kepman, a Manganese futurist and Canadian entrepreneur (metrotimes.com)

  • Investing in manganese – Facts revealed in Rene Perras' interview with manganese visionary Martin Kepman - Manganese futurist Martin Kepman explains how manganese will replace cobalt in the lithium ion battery and electrical vehicle (EV) and stored energy sectors. In addition to being an essential ingredient in the process of manufacturing steel, the dema (sg.finance.yahoo.com)

  • Manganese Market Analysis by Martin Kepman CEO of Manganese X Energy Corp. EV batteries could power 100 seat airplanes and space vehicles. - The Village Voice - Manganese Technology: First Economically Viable Solid State Lithium Battery Developed with Possible Life Cycle of 25 Years (villagevoice.com)

  • Martin Kepman Futurist and CEO of Manganese X Energy Reports on the Lithium-ion Battery Market. - Martin Kepman, a Canadian lithium-ion battery futurist and CEO of Manganese X Energy recently released a report on the future of the lithium-ion battery market.Saint-Laurent , April 09, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Lithium-ion battery expert Martin Kepman (finance.yahoo.com)

  • Lithium-Ion Battery Expert Martin Kepman - Tesla is no longer the only player in the electric vehicle sector - Lithium-Ion Battery & Manganese Expert Martin Kepman Reports Why Demand for Lithium-Ion Batteries Is Growing Tesla is no longer the only player in the electric vehicle space (einnews.com)

  • Manganese Mining and Processing for Investors in Manganese X Energy Explained by CEO Martin Kepman, - Learn Why Manganese is a Good Investment! (globenewswire.com)

  • MN221216P00005000 (MN221216P00005000) Stock Price, News, Quote & History - Yahoo Finance - Find the latest MN221216P00005000 (MN221216P00005000) stock quote, history, news and other vital information to help you with your stock trading and investing. (ca.finance.yahoo.com)

  • Investing in Manganese - Future-Friendly Mining Idea Explains Martin Kepman CEO of Manganese X Energy! - Martin Kepman CEO of Manganese X Energy educates. The importance of all future Manganese mined domestically, a critically important mineral.... (globenewswire.com)

  • Manganese X CEO Martin Kepman talks to Cantech Letter - Cantech Letter - Up to date on Manganese? No? We'll forgive you. Manganese might be the most in-demand material you have never heard of Recently, Clare Hanna of research firm CRU Group told INN that there is, in fact… (cantechletter.com)

  • Manganese X Energy Corp (@XManganese) / Twitter - CATL plans to mass produce lithium manganese iron phosphate batteries within ... Martin Kepman CEO of Manganese X Energy Corp talks to Proactive about the ... (twitter.com)

  • Company News - The only place for free North American stock rankings incorporating insider commitment. Get stock quotes, news, fundamentals and easy to read SEC and SEDI insider filings. Home of the Canadian Insider Club which offers alerts and premium research. (canadianinsider.com)

  • Suarez, Godin back calls in Uruguay to overturn Cavani ban - Jan 4, 2021 ... Update: Lithium-ion Battery Expert Martin Kepman Reports on the ... mineral for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion batteries and en. (ca.movies.yahoo.com)

  • Due Diligence and Valuation Report - May 4, 2022 ... Supply chain issues and higher cobalt prices have led EV battery ... Manganese demand for Li-ion batteries is expected to reach to around. (a-bid.com)

  • Manganese X Energy Corp! Seize the Opportunity! - Betweenplays - This is one of the most important projects in North America that not many people are looking at because of so many other factors affecting the world today...click to read article. (betweenplays.com)

  • Manganese Battery Hill project in New Brunswick, Canada, celebrates Elon Musk Tesla Battery Day Motor World - Toronto, Canada, 21 September 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSXV: MN) (ESF: 9SC2) (OTC: MNXXF), a Canadian company (motorworld.app)

manganesexenergycorp.com

spectrum.ieee.org

entrepreneur.com

news.manganesexenergycorp.com

proactiveinvestors.com

sciencedaily.com

investingnews.com





### Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements: Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release contains “forward-looking information” which may include statements with respect to the future exploration performance of Manganese X Energy Corp (the “Company”). This forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance, or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements of the Company, expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, as well as others, are disclosed within the Company’s filing on SEDAR, which investors are encouraged to review prior to any transaction involving the securities of the Company. Forward-looking information contained herein is provided as of the date of this publication and the Company disclaims any obligation, other than as required by law, to update any forward-looking information for any reason. There can be no assurance that forward-looking information will prove to be accurate, and the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking information. We seek safe harbor.

Sources:

https://www.ide.go.jp/English/Data/Africa_file/Manualreport/cia_08.html

https://www.fpri.org/article/2022/01/chinese-economic-engagement-in-africa/#:~:text=Between%202001%20and%202018%2C%20China,invested%20%2441%20billion%20in%20FDI.

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-09-28/congo-reviews-6-2-billion-china-mining-deal-as-criticism-grows#:~:text=The%20contract%2C%20signed%20in%202008,paid%20for%20by%20mining%20revenue.

https://mineralsmakelife.org/blog/china-is-dominating-the-mineral-supply-chain-race/

https://chinapower.csis.org/china-rare-earths/

https://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/the-threat-posed-by-the-chinese-government-and-the-chinese-communist-party-to-the-economic-and-national-security-of-the-united-states



https://www.npr.org/2021/10/08/1041137034/is-china-a-threat-or-an-opportunity-depends-which-americans-you-ask

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/06/carmakers-switch-to-electric-vehicles-strain-supply-of-battery-minerals/

https://www.iea.org/commentaries/electric-cars-fend-off-supply-challenges-to-more-than-double-global-sales

https://hbr.org/2011/04/the-globe-how-china-reset-its-global-acquisition-agenda

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13563-020-00233-4#:~:text=Total%20Chinese%20overseas%20mining%20investments,FDI%20over%20the%20same%20period.



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